This report is for the governments and businesses that are interested in accelerating deep decarbonisation of the world economy. It aims to highlight where their actions can have the greatest impact, by bringing together knowledge from three areas: An understanding of how technology transitions happen – drawing on lessons from historical shifts such as from horses to cars, coal to gas, and wells to piped water systems; An understanding of how international cooperation has succeeded in the past – looking at what has worked for problems in trade, security, and the environment – and what this means for how coordinated action can steer and accelerate technological transitions;

The application of these insights to the main greenhouse gas emitting sectors, focussed particularly on identifying points of leverage for coordinated international action to accelerate low-carbon transitions. In comparison with previous reports, what is new is a focus on the processes of change, rather than on the end goal.